cats. Dear, majority of scholars believe that "In the Soviet occupation zone, conditions were only marginally less harsh than under the Germans." 2 In September 1939, many Polish Jews had fled east; after some months of living under. In addition, actors were discouraged from performing in them and warned that they would be labeled as collaborators if they failed to comply. 85 Underground Warsaw University educated 3,700 students, issuing 64 masters and 7 doctoral degrees. Polish Underground Movement (19391945) Study Trust (pumst). 9 14 The policy was relaxed somewhat in the final years of occupation (194344 in view of German military defeats and the approaching Eastern Front. 18 19 In Łódź, the Germans forced Jews to help destroy a monument to a Polish hero, Tadeusz Kościuszko, and filmed them committing the act. 16 Poles were allowed back into those museums that now supported German propaganda and indoctrination, such as the newly created Chopin museum, which emphasized the composer's invented German roots. 204 Drozdowski, Zahorski 2004. German policy constituted a crash-Germanization of the populace. The reasoning behind this policy was clearly articulated by a Nazi gauleiter : "In my district, any Pole who shows signs of intelligence will be shot." 22 As part of their program to suppress Polish culture, the German Nazis attempted. The Soviets' targets included persons who often traveled abroad, persons involved in overseas correspondence, Esperantists, philatelists, Red Cross workers, refugees, smugglers, priests and members of religious congregations, the nobility, landowners, wealthy merchants, bankers, industrialists, and hotel and restaurant owners. Polish Underground State saved much of Poland's most valuable cultural treasures, and worked to salvage as many cultural institutions and artifacts as possible. 48 During the war, Warsaw libraries lost about a million volumes, or 30 of their collections. Wywiad z Ireną Andersową, żoną Generała Władysława Andersa, Cooltora, Retrieved on Murdoch 1990,. .